By John Bryan Holds, MD
Emphasizing a pragmatic method of prognosis and therapy, this quantity summarizes present info on congenital, infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, and stressful stipulations of the orbit and adnexa. Highlights contain wide dialogue of thyroid-associated orbitopathy, lymphoproliferative problems, and eyelid neoplasms. comprises up to date references and diverse new colour photographs.
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Extra resources for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
Telecanthus can imply either a bony or a soft tissue abnormality, and the term is used most commonly in describing acquired conditions. The eye may also be displaced vertically or horizontally by an orbital mass. Retrodisplacement of the eye into the orbit, enophthalmos, may occur because of volume expansion of the orbit (fracture) or secondary to sclerosing orbital tumors (eg, metastatic breast carcinoma). 24 . Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System Henderson jW, Campbell Rj, Farrow GM, et al. Orbital Tumors.
Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002. Exophthalmometry is a measurement of the anterior-posterior position of the globe, generally from the lateral orbital rim to the anterior corneal surface (Hertel exophthalmometer). On average, the globes are more prominent in men than in women and more prominent in black patients than in white patients. An asymmetry of greater than 2 mm between the 2 eyes of a given patient suggests proptosis or enophthalmos. The accuracy of exophthalmometry with this instrument is enhanced when the examiner places his or her fifth finger in the patient's external auditory canal for stabilization.
CHAPTER Table 2-1 Periorbital Changes Associated With 2: Evaluation Orbital of Orbital Disorders. Disease Sign Etiology A salmon-colored mass in the cul-de-sac Eyelid retraction and eyelid lag Vascular congestion over the insertions of the rectus muscles (particularly the lateral rectus) Corkscrew conjunctival vessels Vascular anomaly of eyelid skin Lymphoma (see Fig 5-16) Thyroid-associated orbitopathy Thyroid-associated orbitopathy S-shaped eyelid Anterior uveitis Eczematous Ecchymoses Prominent lesions of the eyelids of eyelid skin temple Edematous swelling of lower eyelid Optociliary shunt vessels on disc Frozen globe Black-crusted lesions in nasopharynx Facial asymmetry Gaze-evoked amaurosis 23 Arteriovenous fistula Lymphangioma, varix, or capillary hemangioma Plexiform neurofibroma or lacrimal gland mass Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome or sarcoidosis Mycosis fungoides (T-cell lymphoma) Metastatic neuroblastoma, leukemia, or amyloidosis Sphenoid wing meningioma, metastatic neuroblastoma Meningioma, inflammatory tumor, metastases Meningioma Metastases or phycomycoses Phycomycoses Fibrous dysplasia or neurofibromatosis Optic nerve sheath meningioma or other orbital apex tumors Inspection Globe displacement is the most common clinical manifestation of an orbital abnormality.