By James J. Reidy MD
Discusses the constitution and serve as of the cornea and exterior eye and stories proper exam innovations. Covers infectious and ocular floor ailments, problems and surgical procedure of the ocular floor, immune-mediated and neoplastic problems, congenital anomalies and degenerations. A lately up to date bankruptcy at the genetics of corneal dystrophies displays the recent IC3D type. Discusses poisonous and tense accidents and corneal transplantation. includes many new colour pictures. lately revised 2010 2011.
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Additional info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 8: External Disease and Cornea (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
Counesy of John E. ) All of these maps attempt to depict the underlying shape of the cornea by scaling curvature through the familiar dioptric notation instead of the less fam il iar millimeters of radius. A more accurate way to describe curvature wou ld be to use th e true shape of the cornea; some systems directly derive corneal shape by means of scanning slits or rectan gular grids and then determine power from that shape. To represent shape directly, maps may display a z-height from an arbit rar y plane (iris plane, limbal plane, or frontal plane) using color maps.
The term environment is used broadly to include bod ily states habituall y experienced by an ind ividual both internall y and externally. Dry eye I I I I I Aq ueous-deficient I I I Sjogren syndrome dry eye Non-Sjogren dry eye I Primary I I I Secondary I deficiency Lacrimal, Evaporative I I J I I Lacrimal gland duct obstruction Reflex block I I Intrin sic III I Meibomian oil deficiency I I Disorders of lid Extrinsic I II I Vitamin A I deficiency I Preservatives Topical drUgS, I aperture I Contact lens 1 I Low blink I wear rate I Systemic drugs I Drug action I accutane Ocular surface disease (eg, allergy) Effect of the environment Internal Low blink rate behavior, VTU, microscopy Wide lid aperture gaze position Ag ing Low and rogen pool Systemic drugs: antihistamines, ~- blockers, antispasmodics, diuretics, and some psychotropic drugs External Low relative humidity High wind velocity Occupational environment Figure 3·3 Diagnostic classification scheme for dry-eye disorders.
38 • Externa l Disease and Cornea Optical axis , 1 '- Corneal apex Temporal Figure 2-23 Line of sight (visual axis) Corneal vertex ,,, , ,, Corneal vertex and apex . ) knowing the overall shape and the related property of curvature has become increasingly important. The refractive powe r of the cornea is determined by Snell's law, the law of refraction. Snell's law is based on the difference between 2 refractive indices (in this case, of the cornea and of air), divided by the radius of curvature.