By Evencio Mediavilla, Santiago Arribas, Martin Roth, Jordi Cepa-Nogué, Francisco Sánchez
Concurrently storing either spectral and spatial info, 3D spectroscopy bargains a brand new method to take on astrophysical difficulties, and opens up new traces of study. for the reason that its inception within the eighties and early nineties, study during this box has grown drastically. huge telescopes everywhere in the global at the moment are outfitted with imperative box devices, and tools of the longer term James Webb house Telescope can have essential box spectroscopic functions. these days, extra attempt is devoted to refining strategies for decreasing, studying and studying the information acquired with 3D spectrographs. Containing lectures from the 17th wintry weather institution of the Canary Islands Astrophysics Institute, this publication explores new 3D spectroscopy recommendations and knowledge. A vast and balanced presentation of analysis during this box, it introduces astronomers to a brand new new release of tools, widening the allure of necessary box spectroscopy and assisting it develop into a strong software in tackling astrophysical difficulties.
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Additional info for 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy (Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics)
SAURON at the WHT, La Palma. 27. 5 m telescope features two IFU options: a ﬁbercoupled lens array IFU, and a bare ﬁber bundle IFU. 24 Martin M. 28. a) Compact GMOS-IFU. b) VIMOS-IFU, the largest IFU to date, providing a total of 6400 spectra. for the J, H and K bands in the near infrared (NIR). Since the available detector size was small (256 × 256 pixels), it was felt that the number of ﬁber or lens array spectra that could be projected onto the available chip would be too small to warrant the eﬀort of building a conventional IFU.
12 Martin M. 14. Example: extraction of MPFS spectra from raw CCD frame. the direction of dispersion is approximately 2 pixels, and given the more or less Gaussian proﬁle of the spectrograph point-spread function (PSF), there is considerable overlap between adjacent spectra. The average inter-spectra minimum intensity is ≈ 65% of the average peak intensity, while the spectrum-to-spectrum intensity variation is > 20%. Ideally, the data reduction algorithm must: (1) ﬁnd the exact location of all spectra (tracing); (2) extract the ﬂux per wavelength bin for each spectrum; (3) compensate for diﬀerent amount of cross-talk introduced by the overlap of spectra; (4) apply a ‘ﬁber-ﬂat-ﬁeld’ correction to compensate for the variation of throughput over diﬀerent ﬁbers; and (5) rebin all spectra to a common wavelength scale, before the set of spectra can be used to reconstruct maps, etc.
To summarize, lens-array-ﬁber hybrids are good for ﬂexible installations; they can accommodate bench-mounted spectrographs, but suﬀer from problematic ﬁber properties (which can be handled with proper care). These IFUs typically have relatively few spaxels, but a large number of spectral bins and wide wavelength coverage. They provide contiguous sampling and have no gaps between spaxels, making them good devices for observations that require high spatial resolution. 39. , 1996). 3 have one feature in common: they do not use detector space very eﬃciently.