By J. L. C. Martin-Doyle and Martin H. Kemp (Auth.)
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Extra resources for A Synopsis of Ophthalmology
If there is no staining, no ulcer is present. PATHOLOGY: A corneal ulcer is saucer shaped, with its edge somewhat swollen and oedematous. It may vary in depth from just the epithelial layers to almost the whole corneal thickness. Necrosis of the base takes place and the surrounding area is packed with leucocytes. When healing takes place vessels grow in from the limbus and the neighbouring epithelium, covering the floor of the ulcerated area. Although at first slightly depressed, this area is lifted eventually to the normal level by multiplying spindle cells.
Sympatholytic Drugs: These are not very frequently used. They produce miosis by antagonizing the sympathetic nerve-endings. The best examples of these drugs are priscol and ergotamine which are used for various purposes in ophthalmology, but their miotic action is only incidental. 4. Sympathomimetic Drugs: These act on the sympathetic at the myoneural junctions, producing a substance similar to adrenaline, which is eventually destroyed by enzymes. This type of drug either suppresses the enzyme or stimulates directly the myoneural junctions.
Pupil dilators cause some degree of paralysis of accommodation and the constrictors increase accommodation. These drugs act in different ways and are classified according to their action. 1. Parasympatholytic Drugs: These block the action of acetylcholine, thereby causing pupil dilatation by making it impossible for the sphincter muscle to contract. The characteristic example of this drug is atropine which is a very powerful dilator, slow in action but lasting a long time and causing complete paralysis of accommodation.