By Helen M. Kingston
This ABC is a concise, hugely illustrated advent to genetic mechanisms desirous about inherited problems. the recent version has been greatly up-to-date with new and revised chapters to surround quick advances within the box. simple genetic options are defined in addition to the appliance of latest applied sciences in scientific perform. details on proper websites also are integrated besides urged texts for additional studying.
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Extra resources for ABC of Clinical Genetics
McKusick-Nathans Institute for Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, MD) and National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine (Bethesda, MD), 2000. gov/omim. Risks within an affected family are often high and are calculated by knowing the mode of inheritance and the structure of the family pedigree. 1 Original principles of mendelian inheritance • Genes come in pairs, one inherited from each parent • Individual genes have different alleles which can act in a dominant or recessive fashion • During meiosis segregation of alleles occurs so that each gamete receives only one allele • Alleles at different loci segregate independently Autosomal dominant inheritance Autosomal dominant disorders affect both males and females.
One of the best examples of imprinting in human disease is shown by deletions in the q11-13 region of chromosome 15, which may cause either Prader–Willi syndrome or Angelman syndrome. The features of Prader–Willi syndrome are severe neonatal hypotonia and failure to thrive with later onset of obesity, behaviour problems, mental retardation, characteristic facial appearance, small hands and feet and hypogonadism. Angelman syndrome is quite distinct and is associated with severe mental retardation, microcephaly, ataxia, epilipsy and absent speech.
The term contiguous gene syndrome is applied when several genes are affected, and in these disorders the features present may be determined by the extent of the deletion. The chromosomal location of a microdeletion may be initially identified by the presence of a larger visible cytogenetic deletion in a proportion of cases, as in Prader–Willi and Angelman syndrome, or by finding a chromosomal translocation in an affected individual, as occured in William syndrome. A microdeletion on chromosome 22q11 has been found in most cases of DiGeorge syndrome and velocardiofacial syndrome, and is also associated with certain types of isolated congenital heart disease.