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By Bernhard Sonnleitner

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Note that the time scale is logarithmic Instrumentation of Biotechnological Processes 47 constant was predicted to be at least one order of magnitude greater. In experiments specifically designed to verify this, we found either even greater time constants or no unique stable steady states at all [404]. Within a given bioprocess, specific fluxes of substrates into the cell (qS , qO2 , …) and of products out of the cell (qP , qCO2 , …) are determined either by the capacity of the cell (usually the maximal velocity in a spontaneous process, socalled balanced growth) or by an operating parameter such as feed or dilution rate (sub-maximal in controlled processes such as fed batch or chemostat, socalled limited growth).

G. g. g. g. [201]. 3 Calorimetric Sensors This type of biosensor exploits the fact that enzymatic reactions are exothermic (5–100 kJ mol –1 ). The biogenic heat can be detected by thermistors or temperature-sensitive semiconductor devices. A technical realization can be performed either by immobilizing enzymes on particles in a column around the heat-sensing device or by direct attachment of the immobilized enzyme to the temperature transducer. Applications to measure biotechnologically relevant substances have been: ATP, glucose, lactate, triglycerides, cellobiose, ethanol, galactose, lactose, sucrose, penicillin and others [30, 120, 142, 337].

There are no reports currently available of an on-line application of the very powerful MALDI technique (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry). However, this technique has become increasingly important for the analysis of complex molecules and quality control, for example, for glycosylated material [177] or peptides [104] or nucleotides [324]. Of course, mass spectrometry requires expensive equipment. But it should be taken into account that automatic multiplexing of different sample streams is possible and, in addition, a great variety of different substances can be determined simultaneously.

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