By Charles Baldwin, Holger Evele, Renee Pershinsky
Advances in Porcelain the teeth expertise: Ceramic Transactions quantity 211 offers a compilation of PEI Technical discussion board complaints overlaying the newest clinical and technological development in porcelain tooth expertise. Logically geared up, rigorously chosen articles hide subject matters starting from potency and Dense part Pumping of Porcelain teeth Powder to electronic Ceramic Printing and uncooked fabrics and effort: Their impact on Enamels marketplace. Advances in Porcelain the teeth know-how: Ceramic Transactions quantity 211 is the one-stop source for realizing crucial matters in porcelain tooth expertise.
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Extra resources for Advances in Porcelain Enamel Technology: Ceramic Transactions Volume 211 (Ceramic Transactions Series)
Reduce Coating Material Cost $ Less Solid Waste Disposal Cost $ Reduced Water Treatment Cost $ Less Energy & Labor to Prepare the Coating What are the disadvantages? $ Requires More Labor and Energy $ Additional Equipment is Needed $ The Plant Environment Must Be Controlled $ An Additional Coating Process is Needed $ Rejects May Increase, Resulting in Increased Cost, Scrap and Reduced Production Reclaim Process Processes Mill Slip: Reclaim Pit Wash Down Pre Mill Slip: Less Wash Down Screen + Magnetic Separate Pump to Storage Wash Down Tanks, Mills Floor, Screens and Lab: Pit Spray 30-60% Transfer Efficiency: Reclaim 85% Flow Coat Wet or Dip 90-100% Transfer Efficiency: Reclaim 95% Powder Frit Coat 40% Transfer Efficiency Reclaim 95% Brush, Bead and Drain, Blow-Off: Reclaim 41 Porcelain Enamel Reclaim Technology Review Tool Washer: Reclaim Wet Powder Hanger Cleaner: Reclaim Dry or Wet Dust Collector: Reclaim Wet Spray Washer: Pit/Water Treatment Wash Down: Pit Collection Baffles Drop 85-90% of Overspray 42 ■ Advances in Porcelain Enamel Technology Porcelain Enamel Reclaim Technology Review Overspray Reclaim Wet Process Collection: Dust Collector: 10-15% to Collector Tool Washer: Centrifugal Separate and Settle Powder Hanger Cleaner: Pump to Booth Screen or Collect and Mix with Wet Enamel DUST COLLECTOR RECLAIM Advances in Porcelain Enamel Technology · 43 Porcelain Enamel Reclaim Technology Review Hanger Cleaner Reclaim Process Pit Collection Mill Room or Process Area: Frit Settles Mechanical Agitate Air Agitate with Compressed Air or Blower Reclaim Applications Booth Over Sprays: Reuse on High Appearance Surfaces Dust Collection Materials: Mix with Wet Ground Coat Backside of Parts Tool Cleaner Materials: Wet Ground Coat on Small Parts Pit Materials: Backside Tubs Water Tank Small Low Appearance Parts Conclusions ♦ With raw materials and energy cost, a successful reclaim process must be established and maintained.
Frit Materials can be collected from tool cleaners and pits and reused on low appearance surfaces. ♦ Each enamel process will require a custom design reclaim process and control procedure. 44 ■ Advances in Porcelain Enamel Technology PROGRESS IN THE USE OF SPECIALIZED ENAMEL COATINGS TO BOND CONCRETE TO STEEL Philip Malone, Sean W. Morefield, Charles A. S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center Vicksburg, MS and Champaign, IL Cullen L. S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Porcelain Enamel Institute Outline • Review of technology • Benefits we can expect Status of Implementation of Technology - Research/Demonstration Activity o Validation of Bonding Approach o Hardened Structures o Marine Construction o Investigation of Self-Healing of Bonding Enamel • Applications • Technology Transfer • Summary Problems with Using Steel Reinforcement in Concrete • The concrete-to-steel bond is the weak part of the composite • Corroding steel is increasing in volume and cracks the surrounding concrete 1-95 Bridge 45 Progress in the Use of Specialized Enamel Coatings to Bond Concrete to Steel Porcelain enameled reinforcing steel (PERS) can solve both problems Basic Technology • Tricalcium silicate (C3S) can be mixed with an alkali-resistant enameling frit • The frit can be fired onto reinforcing steel without changing the hydrating properties of the C3S • When the coated steel reinforcement is embedded in concrete, the enamel lets the steel bond to the surrounding concrete Increase in Bond Strength Comparison Of Average Bond Strengths Average Std.
REQUIRED PROCESS TEMP ■ Drop 10 °F from 160F to 150F " Saves 550,000 BTU/HR ■ Drop 10 °F from 150F to 140F ° Saves 400,000 BTU/HR ■ Drop 10 °F from 140F to 130F ° Saves 290,000 BTU/HR Insulate Tanks ■ Insulating tanks can save 26,000 BTU/HR 15 Energy Cost in Washer Systems Upgrade to High Efficiency Motors ■ Saves 140 KW/Year Adding VFD will reduce energy usage by 8,614 KW per motor. O. Smith Corporation Protective Coatings Division The main adherence agents in porcelain enamel are oxides of nickel and cobalt.