By Ray Laurence, Simon Esmonde Cleary, Gareth Sears
Town is generally considered as the main attribute expression of the social, cultural and financial formations of the Roman Empire. This used to be very true within the Latin-speaking West, the place urbanism used to be less deeply ingrained than within the Greek-speaking East yet the place networks of towns grew up throughout the centuries following conquest and career. This updated and well-illustrated synthesis offers scholars and experts with an summary of the advance of the town in Italy, Gaul, Britain, Germany, Spain and North Africa, no matter if their pursuits lie in historical heritage, Roman archaeology or the broader historical past of urbanism. It bills not just for the city's geographical and temporal unfold and its linked monuments (such as amphitheatres and baths), but additionally for its value to the rulers of the Empire in addition to the provincials and locals.
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Italy was just one of them; Germany and Japan were others. Totalitarian regimes naturally had little respect for individual freedom and human rights and even less for the League, which could frustrate their ambitions. Berlin and Tokyo therefore withdrew from the League in 1933 and Rome in 1937. qxd 12/1/05 6:55 AM Page 19 INTRODUCTION • 19 fill its obligations. Very often, however, the parallel balance-of-power circuit dominated League action and made the League powerless. The Hoare–Laval Plan had given Adolf Hitler an indication of what to expect from Great Britain and France in the case of territorial aggression.
11 July: German–Austrian treaty of friendship. 18 July: Outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. 20 July: Montreux Conference on the Straits: Turkey regains sovereignty over Bosporus and the Dardanelles. 27 August: Anglo–Egyptian treaty makes Egypt an independent state. 3–6 September: Brussels: World Peace Congress, organized by the International Peace Campaign. 9 September: Establishment of the NonIntervention Committee to impose an arms embargo against both sides in the Spanish Civil War. 9 September: Franco–Syrian treaty of friendship and alliance concluded, but not ratified by French parliament.
League Treasury moves to London. 31 August: Secretary-General Joseph Avenol resigns; Deputy Secretary-General Sean Lester acts as his successor during the war. 1941 Headquarters of the International Labour Office moves to Montreal (Canada). C. 6 January: Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms Speech. 18 April: Vichy France withdraws from the League. 9–12 August: Atlantic Charter Conference, Arcadia, Canada. 14 August: Joint declaration of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill on war aims: the Atlantic Charter.